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Research Findings

Page history last edited by kkuhel@kennesaw.edu 13 years, 1 month ago


Barbas, M. (2006). Expanding knowledge: From the classroom into cyberspace. Educational Media International. 43(1), 65-73.


Information Communication Technologies (ITC) has a positive impact on  pre-service teacher’s pedagogical, personal, interpersonal and technological skills while providing teachers with effective tools and materials to include during instruction. A study was conducted using two types of forums: “A cyberspace forum (The International Interactive Convergence Project) where the objective was to guide students to ‘learn by doing’ through the development and cooperation of international learning communities through student access to diversified learning channels; (2) A cyberspace classroom (Intercomprehension in Cyberspace) where the objective was ‘learning how to live together’ through the creation of personal spaces within the classroom that fovoured collaborative learning and the transforming of information into knowledge” (Barbas, 66). There are 6 tasks that the study aimed to measure, including: Organization of the forums, promoting progression in learning, differentiating learning mechanisms (including hybrid communication), facilitating appropriate teaching practices in an “audiovisual communication technique,” promoting collaboration and providing an opportunity for reflection (Barbas, 2006). This study uncovered many questions pertaining to learning environments and the effectiveness of ITC on pedagogical practices. As participants in the study, pre-service teachers gathered information using linear and nonlinear formats and built hypermedia projects, while collaborating with international teachers.  The major limitations within this study were time constraints and information overload.  It was suggested that further research into ITC not be limited to solely the classroom.


Becker, H.J. (2000). How exemplary computer-using teachers differ from other teachers: Implications for realizing the potential of computers in schools.Contemporary       Issues in Technology and Teacher Education. [Online serial], 1(2), 274-293. (Originally published in Journal of Research on Computing Education, 26(3), 291-321.


Becker (2000) discusses two surveys conducted in order to gauge the frequency of technology use in the classroom.  The article also delineates the ‘exemplary’ teacher from the ‘conventional’ teacher in relation to the usage of technology. Five percent of teachers were rated ‘exemplary’, whereas 95% were ‘conventional’ (Becker, 277).  What constituted exemplary from conventional is important so administrators can see the challenges of creating exemplary teachers out of conventional teachers.  An index is included that plots the frequency of technology use from low to high.  Telephone interviews and surveys via mail were used to collect data.  Positive factors that attributed to teacher usage of technology include: “(A) the existence of a social network of computer-using teachers at the same school; (b) sustained use of computers at the school for consequential activities, that is, where computers are used to accomplish a goal other than learning, for example, writing and publishing, industrial arts, or business application; (c) organized support for computer-using teachers in the form of staff development activities and a full-time staff member in the role of computer coordinator; and (d) acknowledgement of the resource requirements for effectively using computers, for example, smaller class sizes and funds for software acquisition” (Becker, 279).


Friedman, A., Bolick, C., Berson, M., & Porfeli, E. (2009). National educational technology standards and technology beliefs and practices of social studies faculty: Results from a seven-year longitudinal study. Contemporary Issues in Technology and Teacher Education, 9(4), 476-487.


In order to make students more proficient users of technology in an era where technology is salient throughout various societal outlets, ISTE developed NETS (National Education Technology Standards). NETS was developed by ISTE to parallel technology usage in the classroom with meeting curriculum standards in content areas set forth by The National Council for the Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE).  According to NETS, students should become: “Capable technology users, information seekers, analyzers and evaluators, problem solvers and decision makers, creative and effective users of productivity tools, communicators, collaborators, publishers and producers and informed, responsible and contributing citizens” (Friedman, 3).  The ultimate goal of NETS (2007) is to instill “expertise” and more “skillful” teachers whose reliance on technology is supplemental in teaching.  Two types of technologies, “generalist” and “specialist,” are identified in the survey and different models are used to weigh the prevalence of these types of technology in the classroom.  Overall, the availability of technology is a predictor of usage: Teachers who use technology on a frequent basis outside of the classroom, in addition to technology provided by the school, positively impacts technology use in the classroom.


Rubinstein-Avilia, E & Sox, A. (2009). WebQuests that are rated highly for content may lack design features that address the needs of English-language learners, but the use of adapted and customized WebQuests can help. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 53 (1), 38-48.


WebQuests is a technology tool that fosters second language learning as it targets “the development of academic language development, Internet inquiry, and critical and higher-order reasoning.” (Sox &Rubinstein-Avilia, 39). Furthermore, researchers surmise that technology adds a “visual” and auditory component to second language learning: “Cummins (2000) also has suggested that the World Wide Web has great potential for providing ELLs the visual and aural stimulation to render new concepts more comprehensible” (Sox &Rubinstein-Avilia, 39).  A rating of 1 (ineffective) to 4 (effective) is assessed in the following categories: Comprehensible language usage (linguistic), various and pertinent websites and visual aids (multimedia) and emphasize key concepts in a comprehensible format (organizational). In order to enhance learning and maximize the effectiveness of WebQuests, SLA scholars suggest implementation of sheltered instructional methods, such as incorporating visual aids (charts, diagrams, pictures) beside written text that relate to content standards within the WebQuest task to differentiate instruction (Sox & Rubinstein-Avilia, 2009).


Vrasidas, C., McIsaac, M. (2001). Integrating technology in teaching and teacher education: Implications for policy and curriculum reform. Education Media International, 38(2), 127-132.


The integration of technology in the classroom transcends simply learning about technology to learning how to incorporate technology across content areas.  Learning how to use technology is paramount in adopting a constructivist approach to inquiry: Both students and teachers actively seek and gather information pertinent to specific content areas. The importance of working on “meaningful tasks” should be exercised while using technology (Vrasidas & McIssac, 2001).  “Teacher preparation should not be based on training for ‘computer literacy’ but should prepare teachers for using technologies to construct, represent and share knowledge in real life authentic contexts” (Vrasidas & McIssac, 129).


Additional research articles for consideration:


Archambault,L., Wetzel,K., Foulger, T.& Williams, M. (2010). Professional development 2.0: Transforming teacher education pedagogy with 21st century tools. Journal of Digital Learning in Teacher Education. 27 (1), 4-11.


DeGennaro, D. (2010). Grounded in theory: Immersing preservice teachers in technology-mediated learning. Contemporary Issues in Technology and Teacher Education, 10(3), 338-359.


Gronseth,S., Brush,T., Ottenbreit-Leftwich,A., Strycker,J., Abaci, S., Easterling,W., & van Leusen, P. (2010). Equipping the next generation of teachers: Technology preparation and practice. Journal of Digital Learning in Teacher Education, 27(1), 30-36.


Healey, D., Hanson-Smith, E., Hubbard, P.,  Ioannou-Georgiou, S.,  Kessler ,G., & Ware, P.  (2011). TESOL technology standards: Description, implementation, integration.: Alexandria, VA: TESOL, Inc.


Lei, J. (2009). Digital natives as preservice teachers: What technology preparation is needed? Journal of Computing in Teacher Education, 25(3), 87-97.


Kessler, G. & Plakans, L. (2008). Does teachers’ confidence with CALL equal innovative and integrated use? Computer Assisted Language Learning, 21(3), 269-282.


Shoffner, M. (2009). Because I know how to: Integrating technology into preservice English teacher reflective practice. Contempory Issues in Technology and Teacher Education, 9 (4), 371-391.


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